Countries / Territories

Country Profile Vietnam



    Situated on the eastern coast of mainland Southeast Asia, the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (SRV) has an area of 329,560 km2. The nation is bordered on the North by China, on the East by the Gulf of Tonkin, on the East and South by the South China Sea, on the South West by the Gulf of Thailand, and on the West by Cambodia and Laos, with a total land boundary of 4,639 km and a coastline of 3,444 km. Before unification, which was proclaimed on 3 July 1976, Vietnam was divided in two by the 17th parallel. To the south was the Republic of Vietnam (RVN), also known as South Vietnam; to the north, the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV), also known as North Vietnam. Vietnam is entirely located in the tropical belt lying between the equator and the Tropic of Cancer. While there are slight variations in temperature, depending on the season and the altitude, the primary seasonal changes are marked by variations in rainfall.

    Agricultural Sector

    According to the Ministry for Agriculture and Rural Development of Viet Nam, agricultural growth rate has reached rapid and stable level with an average growth of 4.5% per year over the last 10 years. Today, agriculture contributes about 30% of the total export turnover and 25% to total GDP (MARD). In the last decade, Viet Nam has surged as one of the biggest coffee producer of the world, becoming in few years the third coffee exporter in the world. Viet Nam is also the first exporter of pepper, the second exporter of cashew nuts and the third exporter of milled paddy rice. Other major export crops include: rubber, tea, groundnuts shelled, honey, tobacco, maize, fruit and vegetables (FAOSTAT, 2005-06). Of the total land in use, 20% is arable land, 7% is permanent crops, and 73% is for other uses (CIA, 2007).

    Brief overview of organic farming

    According to IFOAM & FiBL (2006), in Vietnam there are 6,475 hectares of land under organic management. There are currently 1,022 organic farms registered in Vietnam.   In Vietnam the use of chemical fertilizer has increased dramatically since 1980. Government policies have favoured the use of chemical fertilizers with the goal of promoting food security in the country. Organic agriculture in the country is limited, and there is no official government programme supporting the sector. Organic agriculture is at its initial phase and efforts  for simplifying organic certification in the country are underway (IGCI) .

    Brief overview of key organic products

    The organic products grown are mainly rice, tea, maize, wheat, legumes, and shrimps. There is no evidence of a domestic market for organic products, and production is mainly exported.

    The network

    By December 2006, there were no evidences of government-funded programmes aimed at the promotion of the organic sector. The Swiss Import Promotion Programme (SIPPO) is currently assisting Vietnam growers to breed certified organic prawns. National agricultural research, although very advanced in some respect, is focused on conventional agriculture. The International Global Change Institute (IGCI) has funded three projects to develop and test technologies and processes for adopting organic production methods for tea and other crops in selected communes.

    Informatic Center of Agriculture and Rural Development (ICARD)
    No.2-Ngoc Ha Street Ba Dinh, District HaNoi, VietNam
    Tel: (+84-4) 7332160/8235804
    Fax: (+84-4) 8230381
    E-mail: icard(at)

    Swiss Import Promotion Programme (SIPPO)
    Gisela Lang
    Stampfenbachstrasse 85
    P.O. Box 492
    CH-8035 Zürich
    Tel: +41 44 365 52 00
    Fax: +41 44 365 52 02
    E-mail: newsletter(at)

    International Global Change Institute (IGCI)
    University of Waikato
    Private Bag 3105
    New Zealand
    Tel: +64 (07) 8396368
    Fax: +64 (07) 8395974



    - CIA FactBook, 31.05.07

    - FAO, 24.10.2006: Key Statistics of Food and Agriculture External Trade. Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Statistics Division. and

    - FAO, IFOAM, and Earth Net Foundation (2003): Proceedings of the Seminar on the Production and Export of Organic Fruit And Vegetables in Asia.

    - FAO Statistical Year Book, (2005-06)

    - IFOAM & FiBL (2006): The World of Organic Agriculture. Statistics and Emerging Trends 2006. International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM), Bonn & Research Institute of Organic Agriculture FiBL, Frick, pp. 108-117.

    - Yussefi, Minou and Willer, Helga, Eds. (2003): The World of Organic Agriculture, Statistics and Future Prospects. Foundation Ecology and Agriculture, Germany and International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements.