Western and Central Africa
Eastern and Southern Africa
Eastern Europe and Central Asia
Voluntary standards have been rising fast, leading to similar standards operating in the same markets. This study finds multiple standards in 86 of 90 markets it reviewed, which creates confusion for consumers and producers alike. This joint report with the European University Institute is the second of a series that goes from identifying social and environmental standards to outlining markets that are most fragmented. It offers recommendations for coordination for standard-setting organizations and policymakers.
Publication Date: 21 Sept. 2017