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Packaging - Glossary - G

  • Packaging Processes

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    The Glossary of the International Trade Centre (ITC) on the technical terms used in the packaging sector is a database designed to provide updated information on the specific terminology used in the packaging industry. This Glossary is a tool placed at the disposal of users for information only. It is not designed to replace the appropriate professional advice in any way. Users are invited to submit their comments and observations by email to Mr. Frederic Couty, Senior Adviser, Export Packaging at the following email address: fcouty[at]intracen.org

    Select an alphabetic above to access the glossary.

  • G

    Galvanize

    To coat iron or steel with zinc by electroplating or hot dipping to retard rusting.

    Gas flushing

    The replacement of air in a gas tight package with an inert gas such as nitrogen, to minimize oxidation and extend product shelf life.

    Gas packing

    Packaging in a gas-tight container in which any air has been replaced by a gas that contains practically no free oxygen, such as commercial carbon dioxide or nitrogen. Gas pack­ing finds its principal use for protecting foods and pharmaceuticals that are subject to oxida­tive deterioration, and can be used with many sorts of containers, both rigid and flexible.

    Gas transmission rate

    A measurement of the time required for a volume of gas to pass through a membrane (thin film) under standard conditions of temperature and pressure.

    Gasket

    A flexible liner material applied to the inside of a closure or between two package components to make a tight seal. A rubber ring between the metal cap and a glass jar.

    Gate

    (1) A device for guiding liquids emptied from the bung hole of a barrel.

    (2)  a restricted section of the runner at the entry point of a plastic injection mould cavity, through which the plastic material enters the closed cavity and core assembly of the mould.

    (3) The moulded material occupying the space in (2).

    Gauge 1

    The unit of measurement of the thickness of films and foils. Expressed in microns or mils. (1 mil = 25 microns; 100 gauge = 1 mil). 2.   An instrument for measuring thickness or length.

    Ghosting After printing

    The appearance of un­wanted images, usually only faintly discernible, in areas of solid printed ink coverage.

    Glass container

    A vessel of whatever shape or size made from glass. See also: Bottle.

    Glass fibre

    Thin strands of glass which are woven into fabrics or moulded into thermoset plastic resins to enhance their strength.

    Glassine

    A supercalendered smooth, dense and translucent paper (20-40g/m2) highly resistant to grease and, when waxed or laminated, an excellent water vapour (moisture) barrier.

    Glazed paper

    Paper which has been coated to provide a hard, bright finish. Coatings may include clay, calcium carbonate, varnish or lacquer.

    Gloss

    (1) A term used to express the shine, sheen or lustre of the dried film. If a surface clearly and plainly reflects an image of light, it has a high gloss.

    (2) Absence-of-bloom gloss  indi­cates freedom from haziness bordering a highlight.

    (3) (adjective) The degree to which the reflectance of a surface approaches that of a perfect mirror, as opposed to a d ull or matte finish.

    Glue

    An adhesive usually based on gelatin extracted from animal wastes. Often a general term for any adhesive.

    Gob

    The controIled mass or globule of molten glass fed into the mould by a feeder in the manu­facture of glass containers.

    Grain direction

    The direction parallel to the grain in  a   paper or board. When paper pulp is fed through a paper machine, the fibres tend to settle iu a direction parallel  to the motion of the machine. This grain direction, also known as machine direction, of paper and paperboard is an important strength consideration in container design. There is greater tear­ing strength across the grain (in the cross direction) than with it; whereas there is greater tensile strength in the grain direction.

    Graphics

    The design and decoration of the surfaces of a package. The use of the photographic and printing techniques for label and package decorating.

    Gravity filling

    Relying on the force of gravity to fill a package without enforcing means.

    Gravure

    A printing process in which the design is etched into the surface of a metal cylinder. (Intaglio).

    Greaseproof paper

    Translucent paper (40-60 g/m2) with low porosity. Made by a similar process to that used for Glassine, without supercalendering.

    Green Dot (Grüner Punkt)

    Recycling symbol on packaging initiated by the Dual System Deutschland (DSD) recycling organization in Germany and used in many other countries. It implies that the fees for recycling have been paid. Used now by several european countries having implemented similar systems in order to met the requirement of the european directive on packaging waste.

    Grey balance chart

    Chart comparing lightness darkness of print against  varying tones of grey.

    Guillotine

    A cutting machine in which a knife edge is caused to descend vertically. Usually used to cut relatively high stacks of paper or other sheet materials.

    Gum

    Any of a class of substance ex­uded by or   prepared from plants or animal hides or bones, sticky when moist; composed of complex carbohydrates and   organic acids, which are soluble or swell in water.

    Gummed paper

    Paper products — labels and tape for packaging applications — coated with a water-soluble or solvent activated adhesive.

    Gunny sack

    Bags from India and other parts of Asia made from jute. Name derives from the Indian (Hindi) word, “gunny”, meaning sack.

    Gusset

    The bellows fold or tuck in the side or bottom of a bag or sack.
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