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The Glossary of the International Trade Centre (ITC) on the technical terms used in the packaging sector is a database designed to provide updated information on the specific terminology used in the packaging industry. This Glossary is a tool placed at the disposal of users for information only. It is not designed to replace the appropriate professional advice in any way. Users are invited to submit their comments and observations by email to Mr. Frederic Couty, Senior Adviser, Export Packaging at the following email address: fcouty[at]intracen.org
Select an alphabetic above to access the glossary.
called liner. Paperboard used as the flat or surface layer of a corrugated
part of a liner for caps for glass containers, which comes in contact with
the product packed, acting as a barrier to prevent injurious chemical action.
Being nonporous, it also serves to prevent entrance of air and moisture.
Waxed paper, varnished paper, rubber compounds, and tin or aluminum foil are
commonly used types of facing material.
designed to provide sufficient quantities of a product for a family’s needs.
process of quickly separating printed materials (labels, inserts, etc.) to
check for edge marks and to improve feeding from a stack.
which serves to secure one part of a package to another. Examples: nail,
screw, staple, strapping, stitch, adhesive, etc.
to denote the stability or resistance of coloured pigments to influences
such as light, alkali, etc., in packaging and similar applications. The best
of these are known as fast reds, fast blues, etc.
(1)A metal or plastic cylinder with helical
contoured groves in its surface to fit the container, which is turned to move
a container along a given path, normally into or out of a machine.
(2)The screw of an extruder which moves,
compresses and heats the extruded material.
made of matted fibres of wool, vegetable, or other materials, such as fibrous
asbestos, etc. Used in various thicknesses as commercial cushioning material,
primarily where positive cushioning performance or a heavy, dense pad is
needed and where cost considerations are not too important.
thread-like pieces of vegetable matter, from fibrous plants such as cotton,
jute, bagasse, straw and from wood pulp, which form the basis of paper board
for many other packaging materials. Synthetic fibers are avaialble such as
material which has been compressed into a flat web of a desired thickness
Containers may be made from either solid or corrugated fibreboard.
glued paper assembly, the tear of fibre as opposed to separation of adhesives
when the assembly is pulled apart. If the adhesive film is weak, unit
separation will occur at the paper-adhesive interface rather than the paper
1. Strips of paperboard, crushed paper or
other substances used to fill the voids within a package.
2. A normally low-cost material, usually
non-organic, used in the manufacture of paper and paperboard to impart
certain properties or to reduce costs.
3. Equipment to fill or feed products into a
flexible web of organic non-fibrous material with a thickness not exceeding
1. The quality of a surface as determined by
colour, brightness, texture and general appearance.
2. That part of a glass container which
carries the threads, lugs or other features to which the closure is applied.
seal resulting from bonding together, usually by heat, the edges of two
sheets, resulting in a fin-like joint.
wooden cask, usually used for butter. Firkin capacity is not clearly defined
but it typically holds about 56 lb. of butter.
particles appearing in the surface of coating and varnishing materials.
component attached to the container finish to provide a performance function such as control of
fluid flow and/or cut off, or to provide restricted product dispensing. They
are usually protected by the primary closure and perform the desired function
once the closure is removed. As part of a closure assembly, fitments thus can act as droppers,
sprinklers, powder shakers or spreaders.
liquid-holding bottle or flask, of glass or plastic and of no defined
a material (such as a plastic bottle or film) to a gas flame to increase the
polarity of the surface and thus improve its printability/ acceptance of
adhesives. The amount of flame treatment is dependent on the condition and
position of the flame and the length of exposure.
protruding edge or rim to facilitate the construction, assembly or use of a
or joining member of a box, carton or envelope.
plastic moulding material which is extruded
from the cut-off area of the mould when it is closed.
A narrow-neck container, usually of elliptical cross section, with flattened side
walls having a width four or more
times its thickness.
the ability of the fluting of a corrugated board to resist compression stress
applied to the faces of the board.
A heat seal of thermoplastic coated papers or
thermoplastic films using a flat heated surface.
package, constructed from relatively thin papers, films, foils or
combinations thereof and is thus flexible.
of printing using printing plates made of rubber or plastic on which the
design to be printed is in relief. The ink is transferred directly from the
raised areas of the plate to the substrate (material to be printed).
plate made mostly od photo sensistive polymers which allow easy manufacture
of the printing plate
transparent glass used for bottles and jars.
portion of the top of certain vacuum closures
which flips inwards due to the
pressure differential between a vacuum inside the container and the
surrounding atmosphere. In this position the panel is concave. If there is
insufficient vacuum in the package, the panel flips outwards, becoming convex and indicating that the
package may be leaking and defective.
A rib or
corrugation on a surface — one of the undulations or pleats of a piece of
corrugated sheet. Flute classifications for corrugated board are:
per Flute height
A-flute 104 - 125 5,0 mm
B-flute 150 - 184 3,0 mm
C-flute 120 - 145 4,0 mm
- 310 l,5 mm
paperboard material which forms the corrugated
medium of a corrugated board.
material which has been foamed or expended to increase volume and reduce
density by inducing voids or air spaces; used as cushioning. It can be
moulded into desired shapes or formed in situ and can be available in various
materials and densities.
in which the mixing of two liquid chemical components produces plastic
cushioning and insulating foam around the product being packed and thus
conforming to its shape.
of applying corrosion-preventing materials in the form of vapour to interior
surfaces or relatively inaccessible surfaces of packages for corrodible
for folding a scored and slotted paperboard or corrugated sheet (box blank)
and making the side (manufacturer's) joint by glueing to produce a flattened
box. See also: Printer-slotter.
foldable grades of paperboard; plain or printed, cut and creased, in a
variety of sizes and shapes. Formed, folded, glued and delivered flat by the
carton maker, to be set up, filled and closed by the user.
property of paper and board representing its ability to withstand the
stresses of repeated folding e.g. in twist wrapping of candy.
used to determine the endurance of a packaging material when it is subjected
to repeated folding, bending or flexing.
closure material, extremely hard and rigid but brittle with excellent
temperature at which a plastic sheet becomes soft and plastic enough to
permit it to be formed.
which transforms a continuous web of material into a package shape, typically
a pouch or tray, fills it with a measured amount of product, then seals the
formed package and cuts it from the web into individual package units.
mechanical handling device normally consisting of two extended steel prongs
which can be inserted into the open spaces of a pallet in order to lift or
paper-making machine on which the web is formed by depositing pulp furnish
onto an endless wire mesh conveyer. The wire mesh is vibrated as it travels,
so that the paper fibres criss-cross and mat. Water is removed from the pulp
by gravity and suction so that the paper web can be removed from the screen
and pass, unsupported, over subsequent pressing and drying sections.
so constructed that it may be entered and lifted by the fork of a fork lift
truck from any of its four sides.
distance between the top of the product and the top of a sack holding the
product with the sack placed in an upright position.
drying out of a food or food product in the frozen state by the process of
sublimation. This desiccation, which may take place when the product is not
adequately packed and protected against water vapour loss, is particularly
noticeable in the case of meats and poultry, and is usually detected as a
change of colour.
A method of welding thermoplastics
materials whereby the heat necessary to soften the components is provided by
concentrated colourant materials added to flint glass for the production of
crystalline finish or pattern on a glass surface.
mixture of pulp, waste paper, sizing, water, dyes, etc., as fed to the wet
end of a paper or board making machine.
two glass, metal or plastic surfaces by heating them just beyond their
melting or softening point.