COTTON AND CLIMATE CHANGE: Impacts and options to mitigate and adaptCotton production is both a contributor to and a ‘victim’ of climate change. Agricultural production, processing, trade and consumption contribute up to 30% of the world’s emissions when forest clearance is included in the calculation. Cotton production contributes to between 0.3% and 1% of total global greenhouse gas emissions. This report summarizes the impact of cotton production and consumption on climate change and the options and incentives for reducing emissions. It also examines the impact of climate change on cotton production and the options for adaptation. It is not a formal scientific review of these impacts but is rather intended to highlight the main issues and to stimulate discussion on the interface between cotton, climate change and trade.
THE IMPACTS OF PRIVATE STANDARDS ON PRODUCERS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: Literature review series on the impacts of private standards – part II
The question of how standards impact trade is more relevant than ever. Against the background of a world economy that is global in scope and organization with economic activities being spread across national boundaries, the liberalization of trade has been one factor contributing to a policy shift from import substitution to export-led growth strategies. This paper presents the results of a systematic literature review of 47 research papers that assess the evidence regarding socioeconomic and environmental impact at the producer level in developing countries. It provides an overview of the methods used to collect and screen the literature, presents a descriptive analysis of the research, and reviews the findings of selected papers.
NON-TARIFF MEASURES AND THE FIGHT AGAINST MALARIA: Obstacles to trade in anti-malarial commodities
This paper focuses on specific non-tariff measures (NTMs) that could negatively affect the affordability and accessibility of anti-malarial commodities. It introduces non-tariff measures and other obstacles to trade and presents the results of a business-perception survey, conducted by ITC, on NTMs faced by importers and exporters of anti-malarial commodities (medicines for treating/preventing of malaria, diagnostic tests, mosquito nets, insecticides for indoor residual spraying, and pumps for spraying indoor insecticides).
TAXING HEALTH: The relevance of tariff revenue from anti-malarial commodities
This paper deals with potential fiscal revenue losses in malaria endemic countries resulting from the elimination of import duties and tariffs on anti-malaria products (medicines for treating/preventing of malaria, diagnostic tests, mosquito nets, insecticides for indoor residual spraying, and pumps for spraying indoor insecticides). It examines the size of possible fiscal revenue losses if tariff rates on such products were cut off in countries with high and medium malaria endemic rates.
TROPICAL FRUITS AND VEGETABLES IN CHINA: Market overview
China is the world’s top fruit and vegetable producer, with vegetable outputs alone totalling 49% of global output. The Chinese market for tropical fruits and vegetables is set to keep on growing at a steady pace in the near future. For least developed country exporters, this market represents both a real challenge and great potential. This report, based on a survey of Chinese importers and retailers of tropical fruits and vegetables, gives exporters from least developed countries an overview of the current Chinese market situation for tropical fruits and vegetables. It focuses on mango, watermelon, guava, pineapple, banana, papaws, lemons and limes, manioc and ginger.
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To order ITC books onlinePublications are listed online with pricesand can be ordered at ITC’s e-shopwww.intracen.org/eshopTo buy books by mailIn Africa, Europe, Middle East: UN Publications Sales Section,Palais des Nations,CH-1211 Geneva 10, Switzerlandemail: email@example.comIn the rest of the world:UN Publications, Room DC2-8532 UN Plaza, New York, NY 10017, USAemail: firstname.lastname@example.orgPublications are free in limited numbers for official trade-related institutions. For print copies, contact ITC Publications Distribution Office, Palais des Nations, 1211 Geneva 10, Switzerland, email: email@example.com.