Western and Central Africa
Eastern and Southern Africa
Eastern Europe and Central Asia
Situated in southwestern Asia, Iran covers an area of
1,648,000 km2. Iran is bounded on the North by Armenia, Azerbaijan,
Turkmenistan, and the Caspian Sea, on the East by Afghanistan and
Pakistan, on the South by the Gulf of Oman and the Persian Gulf, on
the West by Iraq, and on the North West by Turkey, with a total
land boundary length of 5,440 km. The coastline is 2,440 km. The
shoreline on the Caspian Sea is 740 km. Iran's territory includes
several islands in the Persian Gulf. Iran has a continental type of
climate, with cold winters and hot summers prevalent across the
plateau. On the plateau, the annual rainfall does not exceed 30 cm,
with the deserts and the Persian Gulf littoral receiving less than
13 cm. Snow falls heavily on the mountain peaks and is the
principal source of water for irrigation in spring and early
summer. The Caspian littoral is warm and humid throughout the year,
and the annual rainfall is from about 100 to 150 cm.
Agricultural SectorIran's agricultural sector contributed 12 percent of the GDP
in 2005 and employed 30% (2001) of the labour force (CIA). Some
northern and western areas support rain-fed agriculture, while
other areas require irrigation for successful crop production.
Wheat, rice, and barley are the country's major crops. Total wheat
and rice production fails to meet domestic food requirements,
however, making substantial imports necessary. Other principal
crops include potatoes, legumes, vegetables, fruits, fodder plants,
oil seeds, nuts (pistachios, almonds, and walnuts), cotton,
sugarcane, sugar beets, herbs, spices, tea, and tobacco (FAOSTAT).
Honey is collected from beehives, and silk is harvested from
silkworm cocoons. Livestock products include lamb, beef, goat meat,
poultry, eggs, milk, butter, cheese, wool, and leather. Major
agricultural exports include fresh and dried fruits, nuts, animal
hides, processed foods, and spices (Food and Fertilizer Technology
Brief overview of organic farmingTraditional small-scale farming was the main structure of
farming communities for centuries and this has caused a tremendous
accumulation of indigenous knowledge in farming practices and food
production. Therefore, natural farming used to be a widespread
practice not more than half a century ago and is still appreciated
to some extent by the farmers. According to IFOAM & FiBL
(2006), in the Islamic Republic of Iran there are 100 hectares of
land under organic management and only one registered organic farm.
Although the remains of traditional systems of food production,
completely organic both in technical and social terms, are still in
operation in remote areas, these systems have not been regarded as
organic in the present context of organic production and in fact
they could be considered as ignored organic farmers
Brief overview of key organic productsThe organic products grown are rice, maize, wheat ,legumes
and nuts. There is no evidence of a domestic market for organic
products, and certified production is mainly exported.
The networkAt December 2006, there is no organic organisation within
Iran registered with IFOAM, nor are there any national organic
standards. A few public and private
initiatives in the country do state their intent to develop
organic production: some non-certified production for local
consumption, and some certified for export, mainly Jasmine rice.
There is no evidence of a domestic organic market.
Ministry of Agricultural Jihad
Iranian Agricultural Engineering Research Institute
Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization
Iran's Agriculture and GATT
Iran's Agriculture and Water Sectors
Aquasat (Food and Agriculture Organization)
Iran Industry and Agriculture Company
- FAO, 24.10.2006: Key Statistics of Food and Agriculture External
Trade. Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations
(FAO), Statistics Division.
- FAO, IFOAM, and Earth Net Foundation (2003): Proceedings of the
Seminar on the Production and Export of Organic Fruit And
Vegetables in Asia.http://www.fao.org/docrep/006/AD429E/ad429e00.HTM
- Ministry of Agriculture of Islamic Republic of Iran,
Agricultural Statistics and Information Department, 2000.
- IFOAM & FiBL (2006): The World of Organic Agriculture.
Statistics and Emerging Trends 2006. International Federation of
Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM), Bonn & Research
Institute of Organic Agriculture FiBL, Frick, pp. 108-117.
- Yussefi, Minou and Willer, Helga, Eds. (2003): The World of
Organic Agriculture, Statistics and Future Prospects. Foundation
Ecology and Agriculture, Germany and International Federation of
Organic Agriculture Movements.