Infrastructure

The World Economic Forum Global Competitiveness Report (2013) ranked the overall quality of infrastructure in Myanmar 146th out of 148, suggesting it is necessary for the government increase the number of construction and provision, as well as to improve the quality of infrastructure. The lack of (soft and hard) infrastructure is significantly impeding Myanmar’s development, and reducing Myanmar’s attractiveness for foreign investment. In Myanmar, citizens do not have adequate access to basic infrastructures and services, such as electricity, transportation, and communication. The national transport network (road and railway) of Myanmar is outdated. Maritime transport is well-regulated and competitive and is growing rapidly and boosting the international cargo business. There is a need for greater development and regulation in for telecommunication services, with the penetration rates for fixed-line services being around 1 per cent. On the other hand there has been a substantial increase in mobile services in recent years. The current situation of telecommunication is only able to meet the minimum requirements for local and intercity services for business and government, yet not advanced enough to meet the communication needs of international business. In most sectors, the provision of infrastructure and services is dominated by state-owned enterprises, while the participation of private investment and foreign investment are allowed under certain restrictions. In 2012, the government has put forward some new legislations (i.e. the Central Bank of Myanmar Law 2013) to promote uniform treatment of all financial institutions, whether private or state-owned. Due to a lack of capacity itself, Myanmar is demanding more foreign financial investment and technical assistance to enhance its infrastructure construction.

Source: WEF, 2013, Global Competitiveness Report
Central Intelligence Agency, 2014, The World Fact Book (Burma/ Myanmar)
WTO, 2014, Trade Policy Review (Myanmar)
BTI, 2014, Country Report (Myanmar)

Indicator Value Rank/148
Quality of overall infrastructure How would you assess general infrastructure (e.g., transport, telephony, and energy) in your country? [1 = extremely underdeveloped—among the worst in the world; 7 = extensive and efficient—among the best in the world] | 2012–13 weighted average. 2.13 136
Quality of roads How would you assess roads in your country? (1 = extremely underdeveloped; 7 = extensive and efficient by international standards) | 2010, 2011. 2.38 129
Quality of railroad infrastructure How would you assess the railroad system in your country? (1 = extremely underdeveloped; 7 = extensive and efficient by international standards) | 2010, 2011. 1.75 96
Quality of port infrastructure How would you assess port facilities in your country? (1 = extremely underdeveloped; 7 = well-developed and efficient by international standards). For landlocked countries, this measures the ease of access to port facilities and inland waterways | 2010, 2011. 2.61 127
Quality of air transport infrastructure How would you assess passenger air transport infrastructure in your country? (1 = extremely underdeveloped; 7 = extensive and efficient by international standards) | 2010, 2011. 2.22 136
Individuals using Internet (%) Internet users are people with access to the worldwide network. 10.30 138
Mobile telephone subscriptions/100 pop According to the World Bank, mobile cellular telephone subscriptions are subscriptions to a public mobile telephone service using cellular technology, which provides access to switched telephone technology. Postpaid and prepaid subscriptions are included. This can also include analogue and digital cellular systems but should not include non-cellular systems. Subscribers to fixed wireless, public mobile data services, or radio paging services are not included. 1.07 137
Fixed broadband Internet subscriptions/100 pop: The International Telecommunication Union considers broadband to be any dedicated connection to the Internet of 256 kilobits per second or faster, in both directions. Broadband subscribers refers to the sum of DSL, cable modem and other broadband (for example, fiber optic, fixed wireless, apartment LANs, satellite connections) subscribers. 0.01 130