Western and Central Africa
Eastern and Southern Africa
Eastern Europe and Central Asia
With the accession of Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia,
Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Romania, Slovak Republic
and Slovenia the EU now has 27 member countries with an estimated
population of 492 million. According to the European Commission the
EU will be the largest barrier-free market in the world, bigger
than the US, Canada and Mexico together, with prospects of further
growth as yet more countries may join.
In terms of green coffee imports, the 27 EU member states between
them accounted for an estimated 49.2 million bags in 2007
(ICO). The European Coffee Federation puts 2007 green coffee
imports for all of Western Europe, so including Norway and
Switzerland, at approximately 50.7 million bags.
One consequence of the single EU market is however that, strictly
speaking, there is no intra-EU import or export, only movement of
goods. This is more than just terminology. It means in practice
that the vast majority of imports are declared at the point of
entry into the EU and not at the point of destination. This tends
to increase gross import figures for those countries with the major
points of importation (in essence, the major ports). At the same
time, the single market means that the earlier documentary
requirements for cross-border traffic no longer exist. Operators
are required to report cross-border traffic to the statistical
bodies, but only above a certain value and/or volume. Eurostat, the
EU statistical office, has developed models to extrapolate total
intra-EU movement of goods on the basis of the reported data, but
these have their limitations.
For these reasons data on the movement of green as well as finished
coffee within the EU have inevitably become less accurate. However,
not only do many of the statistics for individual EU country coffee
imports produced by both the EU authorities and the ICO not always
present the total picture, but there are also differences between
them. Most individual EU member country statistics must, therefore,
be treated with some caution.
After deduction of intra-EU trade net total green bean imports into
the 27-member EU for 2007 work out at some 45.2 million bags. The
top six suppliers were Brazil (29%), Vietnam (23%), Colombia (9%),
Peru (4%), India (4%) and Honduras (4%)
Section 02.04 provides summary data on the coffee imports of
individual EU countries; section 02.05 for selected other countries
In this context green coffee means not decaffeinated and from all
sources, so also from other European countries. Green bean imports
are identified by country of origin but not all was necessarily
imported directly from origin.
The source for most import/export data for the EU countries that
were members as at 31 December 2007, as well as for Norway and
Switzerland, is the European Coffee Federation's European Coffee
Report 2007, which itself draws on data provided by Eurostat and
member associations. Other data are taken ex ICO and other trade
statistics. Although it is an EU member in its own right,
Luxembourg's coffee statistics are combined with those for Belgium.
The full ECF 2007 Coffee Report and earlier issues can be viewed
and downloaded from www.ecf-coffee.org
Data on Eastern European countries mostly originate from F.O.
Licht's International Coffee Report, and the ICO.
Imports/exports of processed coffee are expressed as GBE. All
figures have been rounded. Sustainability. Since 2003 the European industry
has been working on a comprehensive concept for 'mainstream coffee
on its way to sustainability', through an initiative known as the
Common Code for the Coffee Community or 4C. This aims at
establishing a scheme of continuous improvement of the social,
ecological and economic principles in the production, processing
and trading of mainstream coffee (which constitutes about 90% of
all coffee traded). The 4C Association was formally
established in early 2007 with its Secretariat in Bonn, Germany.
The first 4C coffee became available in October 2007.
and topic box 03.05.06 for more.Specialty. Although many Western European
countries have traditionally consumed high quality coffees, in
recent years the specialty concept has gained considerable
acceptance amongst European consumers. See 03.01.08 and 09 for
* totals differ due to rounding